Global Traffic Congestion Index

The navigation and mapping company TomTom sits atop a huge mountain of GPS data from its users. It decided to use its 2014 data to measure the impact of traffic congestions in over 200 cities worldwide. 

In the TomTom Traffic Index congestion levels are measured as a percentage of the additional travel time compared to normal traffic (or Free Flow situation). So for instance, Istanbul's congestion level during evening peak hours of 109% means that your 30 minute commute is going to take you over an hour.

Congestion levels mapped for small and large cities

Page Title
Morning peak
Evening peak
City Size
Congestion level
Map Location
Aarhus37%38%Small22%Aarhus, Denmark
Abu Dhabi19%25%Large14%Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Adelaide45%41%Large25%Adelaide, Australia
Almere21%19%Small11%Almere, Netherlands
Amsterdam32%38%Large19%Amsterdam, Netherlands
Ankara44%52%Large33%Ankara, Turkey
Antwerp48%60%Large28%Antwerp, Belgium
Athens54%50%Large34%Athens, Greece
Atlanta45%59%Large24%Atlanta, United States
Auckland68%73%Large32%Auckland, New Zealand
Austin42%61%Large25%Austin, United States
Baltimore30%46%Large19%Baltimore, United States
Barcelona45%44%Large27%Barcelona, Spain
Bari33%36%Small24%Bari, Italy
Basel34%72%Small26%Basel, Switzerland
Beijing63%74%Large37%Beijing, China
Belfast82%82%Small39%Belfast, United Kingdom
Belo Horizonte44%57%Large27%Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Bergen35%48%Small20%Bergen, Norway
Berlin42%51%Large28%Berlin, Germany
Bern29%51%Small18%Bern, Switzerland
Bilbao20%19%Small13%Bilbao, Spain
Birmingham24%34%Large14%Birmingham, United States
Birmingham-Wolverhampton46%50%Large24%Birmingham-Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
Bloemfontein25%24%Small13%Bloemfontein, South Africa
Bologna40%41%Small22%Bologna, Italy
Bordeaux54%61%Small28%Bordeaux, France
Boston41%52%Large24%Boston, United States
Brasília34%54%Large21%Brasília, Brazil
Bratislava50%51%Small23%Bratislava, Slovakia
Breda25%33%Small15%Breda, Netherlands
Bremen28%39%Small20%Bremen, Germany
Brighton and Hove55%59%Small34%Brighton and Hove, United Kingdom
Brisbane43%46%Large25%Brisbane, Australia
Bristol55%56%Small29%Bristol, United Kingdom
Brussels67%71%Large33%Brussels, Belgium
Bucharest78%82%Large41%Bucharest, Romania
Budapest37%41%Large20%Budapest, Hungary
Buffalo24%33%Large16%Buffalo, United States
Calgary35%45%Large22%Calgary, Canada
Canberra33%28%Small17%Canberra, Australia
Cape Town72%58%Large29%Cape Town, South Africa
Cardiff47%49%Small25%Cardiff, United Kingdom
Catania37%43%Small27%Catania, Italy
Changchun56%63%Large33%Changchun, China
Changsha54%64%Large33%Changsha, China
Charlotte31%48%Large18%Charlotte, United States
Chengdu64%67%Large36%Chengdu, China
Chicago43%59%Large27%Chicago, United States
Chongqing82%84%Large38%Chongqing, China
Christchurch48%53%Small28%Christchurch, New Zealand
Cincinnati27%41%Large15%Cincinnati, United States
Cleveland20%25%Large12%Cleveland, United States
Cologne47%59%Large29%Cologne, Germany
Columbus23%41%Large15%Columbus, United States
Copenhagen45%37%Large21%Copenhagen, Denmark
Curitiba32%39%Large19%Curitiba, Brazil
Dallas-Fort Worth30%43%Large18%Dallas-Fort Worth, United States
Denver35%50%Large22%Denver, United States
Detroit29%44%Large18%Detroit, United States
Dongguan41%54%Large25%Dongguan, China
Dubai35%56%Large28%Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Dublin81%80%Small38%Dublin, Ireland
Durban42%39%Small19%Durban, South Africa
Düsseldorf42%36%Small21%Düsseldorf, Germany
East London45%42%Small23%East London, South Africa
Edinburgh64%71%Small36%Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Edmonton31%43%Large23%Edmonton, Canada
Eindhoven24%31%Small15%Eindhoven, Netherlands
Florence37%37%Small21%Florence, Italy
Fortaleza52%62%Large35%Fortaleza, Brazil
Frankfurt am Main53%49%Large27%Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Fuzhou59%74%Large34%Fuzhou, China
Geneva54%69%Small36%Geneva, Switzerland
Genoa41%41%Small22%Genoa, Italy
Glasgow47%48%Large24%Glasgow, United Kingdom
Gothenburg31%44%Small19%Gothenburg, Sweden
Groningen46%37%Small22%Groningen, Netherlands
Guangzhou40%73%Large37%Guangzhou, China
Hamburg48%55%Large32%Hamburg, Germany
Hangzhou59%63%Large34%Hangzhou, China
Hartford28%40%Large16%Hartford, United States
Helsinki36%42%Small22%Helsinki, Finland
Honolulu51%68%Large32%Honolulu, United States
Houston46%68%Large25%Houston, United States
Indianapolis20%35%Large13%Indianapolis, United States
Istanbul76%109%Large58%Istanbul, Turkey
Izmir44%55%Large33%Izmir, Turkey
Jacksonville27%38%Large15%Jacksonville, United States
Johannesburg59%54%Large26%Johannesburg, South Africa
Kansas City17%26%Large11%Kansas City, United States
Kraków53%69%Small34%Kraków, Poland
Las Palmas33%34%Small25%Las Palmas, Spain
Las Vegas22%39%Large24%Las Vegas, United States
Leeds-Bradford48%55%Large26%Leeds-Bradford, United Kingdom
Leicester53%52%Small26%Leicester, United Kingdom
Liège30%38%Small17%Liège, Belgium
Lille49%45%Large21%Lille, France
Lisbon48%61%Small29%Lisbon, Portugal
Liverpool45%49%Large28%Liverpool, United Kingdom
London65%67%Large37%London, United Kingdom
Los Angeles60%80%Large39%Los Angeles, United States
Louisville23%44%Large17%Louisville, United States
Luxembourg (City)58%64%Small28%Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Lyon55%54%Large27%Lyon, France
Madrid43%36%Large21%Madrid, Spain
Málaga24%23%Small19%Málaga, Spain
Malmö23%28%Small16%Malmö, Sweden
Manchester67%72%Large32%Manchester, United Kingdom
Marseille63%71%Large36%Marseille, France
Melbourne52%51%Large28%Melbourne, Australia
Memphis24%34%Large17%Memphis, United States
Mexico City93%89%Large55%Mexico City, Mexico
Miami46%56%Large27%Miami, United States
Milan66%55%Large30%Milan, Italy
Milwaukee29%35%Large15%Milwaukee, United States
Minneapolis30%43%Large17%Minneapolis, United States
Montpellier45%56%Small26%Montpellier, France
Montreal48%57%Large27%Montreal, Canada
Moscow77%103%Large50%Moscow, Russia
Munich50%49%Large27%Munich, Germany
Murcia23%20%Small15%Murcia, Spain
Nanjing59%62%Large32%Nanjing, China
Nantes47%49%Small22%Nantes, France
Naples44%53%Large29%Naples, Italy
Nashville42%52%Large20%Nashville, United States
New Orleans32%50%Large23%New Orleans, United States
New York48%56%Large31%New York, United States
Newcastle-Sunderland50%51%Large27%Newcastle-Sunderland, United Kingdom
Nice40%57%Small27%Nice, France
Nijmegen28%28%Small18%Nijmegen, Netherlands
Ningbo59%69%Large30%Ningbo, China
Nottingham60%57%Small29%Nottingham, United Kingdom
Odense24%26%Small14%Odense, Denmark
Oklahoma City20%33%Large15%Oklahoma City, United States
Orlando28%47%Large23%Orlando, United States
Oslo54%65%Large25%Oslo, Norway
Ottawa52%63%Large28%Ottawa, Canada
Palermo66%68%Small42%Palermo, Italy
Palma de Mallorca35%34%Small25%Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Paris64%64%Large35%Paris, France
Perth46%46%Large27%Perth, Australia
Philadelphia38%49%Large23%Philadelphia, United States
Phoenix29%34%Large15%Phoenix, United States
Pittsburgh31%41%Large19%Pittsburgh, United States
Portland35%61%Large26%Portland, United States
Porto39%47%Small23%Porto, Portugal
Porto Alegre44%50%Large25%Porto Alegre, Brazil
Portsmouth40%45%Small24%Portsmouth, United Kingdom
Prague54%48%Large27%Prague, Czech Republic
Pretoria52%47%Small24%Pretoria, South Africa
Providence30%40%Large18%Providence, United States
Quanzhou39%61%Large30%Quanzhou, China
Quebec44%62%Small23%Quebec, Canada
Raleigh25%40%Large16%Raleigh, United States
Recife81%82%Large45%Recife, Brazil
Richmond16%23%Large11%Richmond, United States
Rio de Janeiro72%81%Large51%Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Riverside32%42%Large19%Riverside, United States
Riyadh29%42%Large26%Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Rochester20%29%Large15%Rochester, United States
Rome71%65%Large38%Rome, Italy
Rotterdam31%43%Small19%Rotterdam, Netherlands
Ruhr region east (Bochum-Dortmund)31%33%Large18%Bochum-Dortmund, Germany
Ruhr region west (Duisburg-Essen)36%43%Large22%Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Sacramento32%45%Large20%Sacramento, United States
Saint Petersburg67%96%Large44%Saint Petersburg, Russia
Salt Lake City19%37%Large15%Salt Lake City, United States
Salvador62%75%Large46%Salvador, Brazil
San Antonio35%47%Large18%San Antonio, United States
San Diego41%53%Large24%San Diego, United States
San Francisco53%68%Large34%San Francisco, United States
San José58%75%Large30%San José, United States
São Paulo44%59%Large33%São Paulo, Brazil
Seattle51%74%Large31%Seattle, United States
Seville33%26%Small21%Seville, Spain
Shanghai66%67%Large35%Shanghai, China
Sheffield47%54%Small26%Sheffield, United Kingdom
Shenyang56%65%Large34%Shenyang, China
Shenzhen54%81%Large34%Shenzhen, China
Shijiazhuang60%72%Large35%Shijiazhuang, China
Singapore (City)54%65%Large33%Singapore, Singapore
Southampton56%51%Small24%Southampton, United Kingdom
St. Louis24%30%Large14%St. Louis, United States
Stavanger41%64%Small25%Stavanger, Norway
Stockholm57%65%Large30%Stockholm, Sweden
Strasbourg39%65%Small24%Strasbourg, France
Stuttgart50%65%Small32%Stuttgart, Germany
Suzhou50%55%Large25%Suzhou, China
Sydney66%64%Large35%Sydney, Australia
Taipei55%77%Large39%Taipei, Taiwan
Tampa34%53%Large25%Tampa, United States
Tampere16%22%Small13%Tampere, Finland
The Hague42%46%Small22%The Hague, Netherlands
Tianjin56%64%Large38%Tianjin, China
Tilburg27%32%Small17%Tilburg, Netherlands
Toronto53%66%Large31%Toronto, Canada
Toulouse56%53%Small24%Toulouse, France
Trondheim26%39%Small18%Trondheim, Norway
Tucson27%35%Large22%Tucson, United States

Bubbles show each city's congestion level measured as a percentage of travel time. Bubble color indicates the city size. Source: TomTom

Top 20 cities by traffic congestion - click any header to sort the list

See the full ranking here. Source: TomTom

Analysis

The overall congestion ranking is headed by Turkey's Istanbul. The top ten is filled out by cities from Europe, South America and Asia. Even though the dataset contains 53 (large) cities from the US, they do not rank high on congestion levels. The first US city, Los Angeles, ranks a shared 12th place and most other US cities do not come close to the top 100. 

Clearly, evening peaks are the worst time to spend in a car (even worse than morning peaks). And overall your additional travel time due to congestion is worse on smaller roads than on highways.

Country averages

Aggregating the city data produces country averages. The chart below shows the average morning and evening peaks for a selection of countries (only featuring countries with 3 or more cities in the Traffic Index).

Number of cities - sorted by size

Chart shows the number of large and small cities in the worst 50 cities in the dataset, based on overall congestion level. While the entire dataset of 218 cities consists for 33% of small cities, only 17% of the worst 50 cities are small. Source: TomTom

Average congestion levels by country

Only showing countries with 3 or more cities in the Traffic Index. Source: TomTom

Evening peak congestion levels

Source: TomTom

Large v Small

On average, congestion levels are a bit lower in smaller cities than in larger cities. Large cities also disproportionately feature in the top 50 of worst congested cities: while large cities make up 67% of the entire dataset, they account for 83% of the top 50.

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